PhD Philosophy  (University of Edinburgh, UK).

Graduated on 27 May 2021. Viva passed without corrections.

Thesis Title: ‘Numerically Distinct Attributes in Spinoza’s Substance Monism’.

Supervisors: Prof. Pauline Phemister (University of Edinburgh) and Dr. Alexander Douglas (University of St. Andrews).

Examiners: Prof. Michael Della Rocca (Yale University) and Dr. Jennifer Marusic (University of Edinburgh).

MSc Philosophy (University of Edinburgh, UK).

MA Humanistic Studies (Tecnológico de Monterrey,  México).

Research summary


Salgado Borge, A. ‘Spinoza on the Distinction Between Substance and Attribute’, Philosophy. Published online: 01-March-2022.

Salgado Borge, A. ‘Spinoza on Essence Constitution’, Philosophia. Published online: 10-01-2022.

Salgado Borge, A. ‘Spinozistic Expression as Signification’, British Journal for the History of Philosophy. Published online: 30-07-2021.

Book Reviews

Salgado Borge, A. Review: ‘Being and Reason: An Essay on Spinoza’s Metaphysics by Martin Lin.’ British Journal for the History of Philosophy. DOI: 10.1080/09608788.2021.1951158.



The Rationalists. Level 10 Course (advanced undergraduate and graduate). Replacing Prof. Pauline Phemister on leave during March 2022. University of Edinburgh.

John Locke. Level 10 Course (advanced undergraduate and graduate). Guest Lecture. 02 February 2021. University of Edinburgh.

The Enlightenment. Level 7 Course. Guest Lecture. 11 February 2021. University of St. Andrews.


Greats: From Plato to the Enlightenment (Spring, 2019, Spring 2021, Spring 2022).

Mind, Matter and Language (Winter, 2019 and Winter 2021).

Knowledge and Reality (Spring, 2018).

Philosophy of Science 1 (Winter, 2020).


2021        Nominated ‘Teacher of the Year’ by the University of Edinburgh’s Student’s Association 12th Annual Student- led Teaching Awards.

2020        Nominated ‘Student Tutor of the Year’ by the University of Edinburgh’s Student’s Association 11th Annual Student-led Teaching Awards.

Conference details

  • Salgado Borge, A. ‘Spinoza on the Nature of God’s Attributes’. British Society for the History of Philosophy. 21-23 April 2022.
  • Salgado Borge, A. ‘Constitution and Identity in Spinoza’s Definition of Attribute’. Dutch Seminar in Early Modern Philosophy VII. Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands. 20-22 May 2021.
  • Salgado Borge, A. ‘God or Natura Naturata? Spinoza on the Numerical Identity Between God’s Essence and all Things in Nature’. Conference Spinoza’s TTP: Politics, Power and the Imagination. Online. 30 March 2021.
  • Salgado Borge, A. ‘Spinoza on the Distinction of Reason’. Seminar on Early Modern Intellectual History (Chaired by Dan Garber).  Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities, University of Edinburgh, Scotland- 21 Oct 2019.
  • Salgado Borge, A. ‘Discrimination and Oppression in Yucatán: An Approach from the Metaphysics of Gender’. Seminar ‘Sexism and Violence’ organized by the School of Psychology of the Universidad Marista de México. México. 15 May 2019.